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Paper 1

This is a KCSE Agriculture Revision Paper.  

These are the instructions you will see in the actual exam:

  • Write your name and index number in the space provided at the top of this page .
  • Sign and write the date of the examination in the space provided above
  • This paper consist of three section A, B, and C
  • Answer all questions in section A and B
  • Answer any two questions in section C
  • All answers should be written in the spaces provided
  • Candidate should check the question paper to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  • Candidate should answer the question in English

Section A

You are required to answer all question in this section.

Click on each question to see the answer.

  • Olericulture –Growing of flowers
  • Pomoculture –growing of fruits
  • Wind
  • Water
  • Moving ice /glacieir
  • Temperature changes

(1 ½ mrks)

  • mixed farming
  • Nomadic pastoralism
  • shifting farming
  • Organic farming
  • agro-forestry
  • cost of feeders and waterers
  • Cost of structure/Depreciation of poultry house
  • Cost of chicks
  • Improve soil structure
  • Control soil borne pest and diseases
  • Ensure maximum utilization of farm labour (2mrks)
  • Aids in weed control
  • Improve soil erosion
  • Security in case of failure on one crop
  • Add nitrogen through N-fixation by Rhizobium bacterial when legume are included
  • crop attacked /mode of felling
  • whether field /storage pest/stage of attack (2mrks)
  • Crop part attacked
  • science classification e.g. insect mite, rodent
  • It is not aerated (as water expels air)
  • It lacks micro-organism
  • It is always acidic
  • Low temperature
  • Used to establish pathogen free plant
  • Used in mass production of propagules
  • It is fast and require less space than use of cutting
  • Used to propagate plants that don’t produce seeds
  • Development of infrastructure
  • Housing status of the citizen
  • Increase in recreation facilities
  • Ratio of teachers to students
  • Improvement in the level of technology
  • Number of patients per doctor
  • Absence of bad odour
  • Material are light in weight
  • Manure is blown in colour
  • where there are no alternative
  • If anything is given for free
  • Give time for the soil organism to act on organic mater
  • Allow gaseous exchange to take place thus carbon dioxide diffuses out of the soil.
  • Allows other operations to take place in time .
  • Production records
  • inventory
  • field operation records
  • Breeding records
  • Feeding records
  • Heath record
  • Marketing record
  • Labour record
  • vegetative growth
  • Chlorophyll formation
  • Build up of protoplasm
  • Improves leaf quantity in leaf crops such as tea and cabbage
  • Can be used as security for credit
  • Encourage long term investments
  • Reduce land disputes
  • Motivates the farmer to conserve soil and water

Section B

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

Because sometimes minerals are leached from the soil and accumulate in the layer B

-Sugar (1 ½ mrks)
-inorganic minerals

Opening Valuation100,000
Hired Labour21,000
Sales of milk13,000
Sales of cereals33,000
Sales of Vegetables9,300
Sales of poultry1,800
Sales of fruits700
Repair and Maintenance950
Interest on loans200
Closing Valuation90,000


19. a) Profit and loss account for Mr Juma ‘s farm for the year ended on 31 st March 2015

Purchase and expense ℓ Sales and receipts ℓ
 Ksh  Ksh ℓ
Opening valuation100,000 Sales of milk13,000
Calves72,000 Sales of cereals33,000
Hired labour21,000 Sales of vegetables9,300
Rent9,000 Sales of poultry1,800 √ ℓ
Feed5,300 √ℓ   
Seed1,700 Sales of fruits700
Pesticides1,250 Closing valuation90,000
Repair and maintenance950   
Interest on loans200   

216,750 ℓ


NB √ℓ = 1 ½ marks (entries) = 3
ℓ = ½ x 8 = = 4

He made a loss ( ½ mark)

His purchases and expenses were higher than his sales and receipts.

Maize stalk borer

See more images of it at different stages and its effects on maize.

Maize stalk borer eggs
Maize stalk borer moth

  • early planting
  • Rogueing
  • clean seedbed
  • planting clean seeds
  • trap cropping
  • proper nutrition
  • proper spacing
  • timely planting

Section C

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided

  • The livestock make maximum efficient use of pasture.
  • it reduces the buildup of pest and diseases.
  • animals waste is distributed evenly in all paddock or field
  • Excess pasture can be harvested and conserved
  • It is possible to apply fertilizers and control weeds , pest and diseases in the pasture that are not in use
  • It allows a resting period for the pasture to regenerate before been grazed on again 
  • adding manure to the soil to enrich it with nutrients.
  • using inorganic fertilizers which releases nutrients in forms that are readily available to plants.
  • practicing crop rotational to ensure balanced nutrients use.
  • using appropriate tillage, for instance minimum tillage.
  • regulating soil ph though liming
  • controlling soil erosion
  • practicing a forestation and reforestation
  • By irrigation which increases availability and uptake of plant nutrients and reclaims saline soil
  • through mulching
  • By weeding to reduce competition for nutrients.
  • By practicing inter cropping preferably with legume to enhance nitrogen fixation.
  • size of the land
  • environment factors
  • the current trend in labour market
  • farmers objectives and preference
  • possible production enterprises
  • existing market condition and price trends
  • availability and cost of farm inputs
  • government regulation /policy
  • security
  • communication and transport facilities
  • topography
  • Soil type
  • type of crop to be irrigated
  • amount of water available
  • distance of the source of water to the field
  • capital available, skill available
  • climate factors of the area
  • To train the plant so that it can have the required shape
  • To remove the diseased and the unwanted parts of a plant such as extra suckers ,leaves, branches ,flowers or even stems
  • To control cropping
  • To facilitate picking to ease penetration of the s pray
  • To control pest and diseases.
  • Training the lab our force
  • Efficiency supervision of lab our
  • Mechanizing farm operation or providing more efficiencies tool and equipment.
  • Giving incentive such as proper housing, transport, bonuses and medical services.
  • Proper regulation of the workers
  • assigning task to workers according to their skills, ability and interest.
  • Improve soil fertility though nitrogen fixation
  • add organic matter to the soil which increases water infiltration
  • Acts as wind break preventing wind erosion
  • Provide shade to crop reducing evapotraspiration
  • Trees intercept the rain drop reducing erosion rate
  • Tree roots hold soil particle preventing their movement
  • Prepare silo before harvesting the crops
  • Harvest crop at appropriate size
  • Wilt the crop for 6-12hours
  • fill the silo with crop compacting every 10-12 layer
  • Check the temperature regularly to ensure correct ensiling temperature
  • Cover the ensiled material with polythene paper
  • Cover the silo with thick layer of the soil to maintain a ridge/hump to prevent rain water
    entering the silo
  • Dig a trench all around the silo to drain water away to rain water /seepage.
  • Occurrence of blossom and rot diseases
  • Delayed maturity of plants
  • Fruits crack when young .
  • Grow more vegetative parts and produces less fruits
  • Scorching effective on leaves
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October 21, 2021

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